PERCEPTION is what we do with sensory stimulation and how we experience THREE SIMULTANEOUS STREAMS of information… from our internal organs (INTEROCEPTION) from our muscles (PROPRIOCEPTION) and from our external environments, as detected (and often interpreted by ) our “special senses”–those organs embedded on and in the surface of our body that detects the world outside consciousness.  Read A&O notes on INPUT- STIMULI


What can we “really” know: data is inserted into gaps in our flow of information by INTERPOLATION and EXTRAPOLATION.  In neuroscience, interpolation is called “filling in” – the blind spot in our retina is a good metaphor if not an example –look at Spillman (et al’s 2006) paper on “perceptual filling in.”


CONSCIOUSNESS PERCEIVED?  One of the most complex accomplishments of perception may go beyond representations of the world outside us to representations of the one within. (It’s too soon to ask how “does one perceive their organ of perception?”). Read Michael S. A. Graziano and Sabine Kastner’s (2011), “novel hypothesis”

BUT we could argue that consciousness itself is only what we perceive it to be: Graziano argues at greater length that consciousness is a perceptual construct in his book, Consciousness and the Social Brain.  (Read Aaron Schurger’s (2014) review, “Consciousness Perceived,” in SCIENCE.)


“The brain, after all, is sealed in darkness and silence within the solid casing of the skull. It has no direct access to the outside world, and so relies on the information that reaches it via a few electrical cables from our sensory organs What is it we actually perceive? is it real?”

look at Alison George’s essay, “Can We Perceive Reality?”