ART & ORGANISM
TERMS as commonly used in ART & ORGANISM
emphasize connections between biology and art
BUT, also look in on The Tate Gallery’s interdisciplinary glossary of art terms
(then perhaps consider “an entertaining exercise” at the end of the glossary)
in DEVELOPMENT, according to Piaget, existing structures change to accommodate to the new information. This dual process, assimilation-accommodation, enables the child to form schema. (from: http://www.sk.com.br/sk_piage.html (Jean Piaget: Intellectual Development) (see Assimilation and Equilibration)
An adaptation is a trait that contributes to fitness, BUT the term also refers to the process by which that trait has come about. “The processes by which organisms or groups of organisms maintain homeostasis in and among themselves in the face of both short-term environmental fluctuations and long-term changes in the composition and structure of their environments.” (Rappaport, 1971) Its several definitions are all unified by the idea of compensation for change, either short-term (such as a stimulus or life experience) or long term adaptations (such as Other (complementary) definitions are: “an adaptation is an anatomical, physiological, or behavioral trait that contributes to an individual’s ability to survive and reproduce (“fitness”) in competition with conspecifics in the environment in which it evolved” (Williams, G. 1966. Adaptation and Natural Selection Princeton). and “a regulatory or advantageous change in response to an environmental stress by an individual or by a species in the course of evolution” (Bullock 1977) sensory adaptation is when receptors are less responsive to stimuli after long term exposure to them –e.g., the smell of food or the feel of clothes. and see exaptation
Most simply, affect is emotion or feeling. It can be inferred in others by outward expressions of posture, expression, or reflexes of the autonomic nervous system. It can “energize” motivation. Along with motivation and cognition constitute a useful “triad” of psychological functions. Associated with the limbic system in the brains of vertebrates.
the signal or information from the sense organs, regardless of the type or cause of sensory stimulation. (see Efference and Reafference)
an alternate form of a gene at the same locus. see gene
maintaining physiological stability by changing set point for regulation. “. . . a fundamental process through which organisms actively adjust to both predictable and unpredictable events. Allostatic load refers to the cumulative cost to the body of allostasis, with allostatic overload being a state in which serious pathophysiology can occur.” (McEwen 2003)
the actions of one individual towards another in which the altruist reduces its own apparent fitness while increasing that of the recipient.
The condition of admitting of multiple meanings or interpretations; uncertainty of meaning or significance. [more, including paredolia and apophenia] See A&O notes on AMBIGUITY
resemblance in characteristics (e.g., body form, behavior) as a consequence of independent adaptation to the same or similar environmental conditions and not due to common ancestry [more]
The wild and wonderful ways in which animals interact with each other, with members of other species, and with the environment
Cognitive unawareness or denial of a deficit such as paralysis on the left side of the body attributable to a right hemisphere lesion. (other syndromes secondary to right hemispher damage are anosodiaphoria, an emotional indifference to the symptoms and neglect, the ignorance of the left hemispace. [more on anosognosia]
the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. (from the Greek words, anthrôpos, meaning human, and morphé, meaning shape or form) Can be adapted to the projection from any relatively well understood system to a less well understood system — as in “homeothermomorphism” projection of traits from warm-blooded to cold blooded animals.
the spontaneous perception of connections and meaningfulness of unrelated phenomena (coined by K. Conrad in 1958 and used by Brugger 2001) [more at ambiguity, paredolia]
Since it seems unlikely (and probably not useful) to go directly to a precise definition of art, we must (at least) triangulate: identify a few reference points that suggest boundaries and extrapolate to an understanding of the term. . . . [more]
in DEVELOPMENT, according to Piaget, Assimilation involves the incorporation of new events into preexisting cognitive structures. (see Accommodation and Equilibraton)
The association of events such as stimuli and responses with positive or negative consequences which leads to a change in behavior. Involves behavioral and its underlying neural plasticity. Associative learning is distinguished from non-associative learning such as change in behavior as a result of habituation or sensitization. See Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning
The distinctive “feeling” that precedes a seizure (typically applied to epilepsy) — may or may not be unpleasant and/or a distinctive sequence of “feelings.” Often allows time to prepare. more about aura
|Automatized Action Pattern (AAP)||
Sequence of motor patterns established and enhanced in efficiency and effectiveness by repetition (see Fixed Action Pattern, FAP)
|Autonomic nervous system||
“a division of the vertebrate nervous system serving internal organs such as the heart, blood vessels, lungs, intestines and also certain glands. The sympathetic nerve pathways have an emergency function and become active under stress (the adrenal medulla in many vertebrates is really a part of the sympathetic system). They have the effect of accelerating heart rate, dilating air passages to the lungs, increasing the blood supply to the muscles, reducing the activity of the intestines. (The parasympathetic pathways serve a recuperative function restoring the blood supply to normal and countering the effects of the sympathetic activity.)
a . . . “cabinet of wonder, where unusual artifacts, natural and man-made, are displayed with no obvious rhyme or reason, no easily discernible method behind the curatorial madness.” [more]
“time-giver” — cue that triggers an organism’s coordination with an environmental rhythm
An entertaining exercise: Take any term as generally understood in its “home” discipline of art or biology and build a bridge from one to the other. If you keep at it, the emerging network of bridges (I always see a Piranesi print in the back of my mind) becomes a SCAFFOLD that can then enable the construction of some more permanent structure, more deeply situated within one’s self. (but of course no structure is permanent) Only such connectedness engenders MEANING. (and of course we all want that. right?)
A diversity—sometimes a bewildering welter—of alternative or controversial meanings for terms severely impedes coherence in understanding principles of phenomenology and their application in practice. This GLOSSARY represents how these terms have been used by students with interests in diverse theoretical and applied fields as they have navigated the sea of information.
[i] “a logical positivist and a phenomenologist walk into a bar…” (both sustain a mild concussion.) (“how?…” “wow! …”)