The instant of PERCEPTION involves the past and future at the cellular as well as the cognitive level: reflection (past experience) and anticipation (future experience). PERCEPTION occurs at the site of convergence of bottom-up (sensory) and top-down (cognitive) information, both conscious and non-conscious, experiential . (see more at https://neilgreenberg.com/ao-perception/.)
Bottom-up information derived from external as well as internal sensory receptors, are, of course, different for different species: see A&O notes on UMWELT
PERCEPTION is the outcome of sensation, but remarkable, many senses can converge on a percept (from Ariel Bleicher[i] on March 1, 2012 https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/edges-of-perception/): For example,
- In a series of studies begun in 1999 Beatrice de Gelder of Tilburg University in the Netherlands showed” that unconscious visual processing “is transporting the patient into a real emotional mood.”
- “It’s become quite clear that there are many, many aspects of our visual system that are taking place at levels you might call reflexive, automatic or subconscious,” says Brown University neuroscientist David M. Berson.
- Sighted people can teach themselves to echolocate, as a study published in 2011 showed. … “Just because we’re sighted, it doesn’t mean we’re not using some component of echolocation,” Pascual-Leone says. “When we’re seeing, we’re not purely seeing. Our seeing is flavored, among other things, by the input of sounds.”
- “The brain,” says Lawrence Rosenblum, a psychologist at the University of California, Riverside’ links and synchronizes sensory information from many sources in ways we cannot consciously observe, giving us extraordinary gifts we never knew we possessed for perceiving the world.”
[i] ARIEL BLEICHER is a New York City-based science journalist who has written for Popular Mechanics, IEEE Spectrum and the Scientist, among other publications