ENLARGING on part of The A&O NOTES on emotion-and-its-communication  







have metaphoric depths that are hard to separate. 

look at this page from Nick Sousanis, “Unflattening.”


Then look at John Koenig’s invented word, OPIA




















FROM A&O NOTES on emotion-and-its-communication: 

The term “EMOTION” engages a vast number of more-or-less nuanced states of more-or-less conscious feelings.   Wikipedia has undertaken an Emotion Project to describe as much of this situation as possible.  Their most direct definition of emotion (of many possible) is: “…a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity.” Emotions produce different physiological, behavioral and cognitive changes. The original role of emotions was to motivate adaptive behaviors that in the past would have contributed to the passing on of genes through survival, reproduction, and kin selection.[8][9] In other words we possess and express emotion because our evolutionary history has made it adaptive to do so. (There is however a possible spandrel argument: that is, emotions represent a side-effect or collateral effect or by-product of some other adaptive process)

With respect to representing our feelings as opposed to reasoned thought there is a great abundance of terms in many languages which in their subtlety are almost untranslatable. And brilliant neologisms (see John Koenig’s Berkeley TED talk on new words for emotion.  such as anemoia

The following emotions and their associated eye behaviors come from Changing Minds.org:

Emotions w/ eye summary:[34]

  • Anxiety – wetness or moisture in the eyes
  • Anger – eyes glaring and wide open
  • Boredom – eyes not focused, or focused on something else
  • Desire – eyes wide, dilation of pupils
  • Disgust – rapid turning away of eyes
  • Envy – glaring
  • Fear – eyes could be wide, or looking downward (could also be closed)
  • Happiness – “glittery” look to eyes, wrinkled at the sides
  • Interest – intense focus, perhaps squinting
    • Pity – heavy gaze to eyes, moisture in eyes
    • Sadness – tears in eyes, looking downward (also possible sleepless appearance[35])
    • Shame – eyes looking down while head is turned down
    • Surprise – eyes wide open

Eye behaviors with emotional summaries:[36]

  • Eyes up – Different people look up for different reasons. Some look up when they are thinking. Others perform that action in an effort to recall something from their memory. It may also be a way for people to subconsciously display boredom. The head position can also come into play, however, as an upwards look with a lowered head can be a coy, suggestive action.
    • Eyes down – Avoiding eye contact, or looking down, can be a sign of submission or fear. It may also indicate that someone feels guilt. However, depending on the culture of the person, it may also just be a sign of respect.
    • Lateral movement of eyes – Looking away from the person to whom one is speaking could be a sign that something else has taken their interest. It may also mean that a person is easily distracted. Looking to the left can mean that a person is trying to remember sound, while the right can mean that the person is actually imagining the sound. Side to side movement, however, can indicate that a person is lying.
    • Gazing – Staring at someone means that a person shows sincere interest. Staring at a person’s lips can indicate that someone wants to kiss another person. In general, staring means, “I want that.”
    • Glancing – Glancing can show a person’s true desires. For instance, glancing at a door might mean that someone wants to leave. Glancing at a glass of water might mean that a person is thirsty.
    • Eye contact – Eye contact is powerful and shows sincere interest if it is unbroken. A softening of the stare can indicate sexual desire. Breaking that eye contact can be threatening to the person who does not break the eye contact.
    • Staring – Staring is more than just eye contact, it usually involves eyes wider than normal. A lack of blinking may indicate more interest, but it also may indicate a stronger feeling than a person may intend to portray. Prolonged eye contact can be aggressive, affectionate, or deceptive.
    • Following with the eyes – Eyes follow movement naturally. If a person is interested in someone, then their eyes will follow that person naturally.
    • Squinting – Squinting of the eyes may mean a person is trying to obtain a closer look. It may also mean that a person is considering whether something is true or not. Liars may use squinting as a tool to keep others from detecting their dishonesty. Of course, squinting may also just be a result of a bright sun.
    • Blinking – Blinking is also a natural response that can occur for no other reason than having dry eyes. It can also be the result of a person feeling greater levels of stress. Rapid blinking can indicate arrogance while reduced blinking can move towards a stare.
    • Winking – Winking can indicate that two people understand something without using words. It can mean “hello” or it can be a sign of flirtation.
    • Closing of eyes – Closing the eyes serves to shut out the world. It can be a reaction to fear or embarrassment. Others may close their eyes as a way to think more sincerely about a particular subject.
    • Eye moisture – Tears obviously indicate sadness, but moisture also has a more practical purpose to wash and clean the eyes. Damp eyes can be suppressed crying or an expression of extreme happiness or laughter. Men, in many cultures, are not expected to cry but may experience damp eyes in place of crying.
    • Pupil dilation – Pupil dilation may be harder to detect by most people. Sexual desire may be a cause of such dilation. It may also be an indication of attraction. Physiologically, eyes dilate when it is darker to let in more light.
    • Rubbing of eyes – Eyes may water, causing a person to rub their own eyes. This can happen when a person feels uncomfortable or tired. It may also happen when a person simply has something in their eyes.
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