Reason alone is generally considered to have the necessary qualities that enable us to establish and verify facts and then organize the emergent information in ways that generally (a) meet the mind’s reality-test of “coherence” and (b) can be communicated with minimum ambiguity to others to be corroborated or challenged.  


But, Seeking the mind with the mind—is this not the greatest of all mistakes?

Seng-Tsan (3rd Zen patriarch)[i]



CONSCIOUSNESS can be profitably viewed from the perspectives of DEEP ETHOLOGY: the converging perspectives of DEVELOPMENT, ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION, and PHYSIOLOGY applied in an interdisciplinary, integrative manner. The links that follow are intended as points of departure and exemplars of these perspectives applied. 


But PRIOR to any SYSTEMATIC INQUIRY about ANY behavioral trait, we need objective DESCRIPTION, in some ways one of the most challenging parts of productive inquiry. Once we have what at best would be working definitions as free from bias and presumed functions, we can consider the  DEEP PERSPECTIVES




Read Thomas Hobbes (1651) on Consciousness — a good approach to its support of the critical Theory of Mind.

DEVELOPMENT (congenitally programmed and acquired changes in behavior throughout an individual’s life)



    • EXAMPLE of RESEARCH on DEVELOPMENT: “The disparity was staggering. Children whose families were on welfare heard about 600 words per hour. Working-class children heard 1,200 words per hour, and children from professional families heard 2,100 words. By age 3, a poor child would have heard 30 million fewer words in his home environment than a child from a professional family. And the disparity mattered: the greater the number of words children heard from their parents or caregivers before they were 3, the higher their IQ and the better they did in school. TV talk not only didn’t help, it was detrimental.” (from NY Times commentary, “The Power of Talking to Your Children” by Tina Rosenberg 2013)


  • the contexts — abiotic (such as geology and climate) and biotic (such as predators, prey, conspecifics)
  • The many levels of organization  at which interactions between consciousness and the environment occur creates layers of complexity –as with genes that have pleiotropic effects (affect multiple traits), stimuli from the external and internal environments have  many collateral effects: intended response to the environment may have unintended side-effects.  Environmental stimuli can have positive and negative effects simultaneously, but what is important to the organism and its ability to meet biological needs is the retention of rekationships that bring more advantage than disadvantage.   It becomes an issue of optimality.  



  • “TO UNDERSTAND consciousness, we need to know why it exists in the first place. New experimental evidence suggests it may have evolved to help us learn and adapt to changing circumstances far more rapidly and effectively.

We used to think consciousness was a uniquely human trait, but neuroscientists now believe we share it with many other animals, including birds and octopuses. While plants and arguably certain animals like jellyfish seem able to respond to the world around them without conscious awareness, many other animals consciously experience and perceive their environment.

In the 19th century, Thomas Henry Huxley and others argued that such consciousness is an “epiphenomenon” – a mere side effect of the brain’s workings. More recently, it has been suggested that consciousness lets us synthesise external information so that, for example, we experience the sight and sound of a passing car as a unified perception, even though light and sound travel at different speeds.[ii]





  • IN THE RIVER OF CONSCIOUSNESS: Oliver Sacks’ (2004) concise statement and elaboration of the views of current in 2010 resonate nicely with what I believe. All we ever perceive or express is mediated by the systems that maintain the dynamic (always changing) balance of processes that enable our health and prosperity (in every sense).  Insights about consciousness must try to includes the system that enables it.
  • NEUROSCIENCE  is emphasized not just because the INPUTof information, its INTEGRATION within us, and OUTPUT to accommodate the the current and anticipated NEEDS of humans is totally dependent upon the nervous syetem but because our imaginations and creativity are liberated by the awareness that the human brain at the center of this system is arguably one of the most complex structures in the universe*.  (see E&S notes on INPUT–INTERGRATION–OUTPUT ; A&O notes on NEEDS, roughly corresponding with “motivation”)


  • CONSCIOUSNESS can be more-or-less evident in our daily lives.  The vast amount of processes and activities operate without much awareness of consciousness — I imagine a brain full of circuits representing squirming, intertwined masses of reflexes, habits. biases, and intuitions which ON OCCASION we may be aware of.  CONSCIOUS AWARENESS — a state in which  activity from several brain networks enables a unified experience of “self in the world” rather than a collection of isolated perceptions of sensations from the outrside world and from the body (“embodied cognition”).
  • Entities that outwardly manifest all the properties we associate with an adaptive life but devoid of much or any conscious AWARENESS or INSIGHT are often thought of as zombies ..  automatons … somnabules.
  • Changes in levels of consciousness occur in response to changes in the external and internal environments.  They occur typically in rhythms that echo those of our phsiology and are manifest in various ways such as daily (sleep) as well as in various pathological states. They clearly involve the relative activity of several more-or-less distributed neuronal systems interacting to provide an appropriate level for the circumstances at hand.  An apprent “key” structure has recently been identified:
  • “Although only tested in one person, the discovery suggests that a single area – the claustrum – might be integral to combining disparate brain activity into a seamless package of thoughts, sensations and emotions. It takes us a step closer to answering a problem that has confounded scientists and philosophers for millennia – namely how our conscious awareness arises. http://www.newscientist.com/special/consciousness]





[i]. Hsin Hsin Ming: Inscribed on the Believing Mind By Sengtsan, third Chinese patriarch http://www.mendosa.com/way2.htm

[ii] Anil Ananthaswamy (2017)  Consciousness helps us learn quickly in a changing world. NS   28 June 2017, updated 29 June 2017  This article appeared in print under the headline “The point of consciousness”  Article amended on 29 June 2017   Some errors in the details of the experiment have been corrected     Want more? Read the extended version of this article.  NS  Magazine issue 3132, published 1 July 2017